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Variotec 460

Detecting Water Leaks using Hydrogen Tracer Gas

Water Leak Detection using Tracer Gas

If a water pipe is not under pressure or the noise from the leak cannot  easily be  heard then Tracer gas can be a very useful technique to locate water leaks in: Customer Supply Pipes, Underfloor Heating Systems, Boilers, Central Heating Systems, Mains Distribution Networks.

The hydrogen/nitrogen Tracer gas is introduced into the pipe with the suspected leak using a cylinder of gas. The tracer gas used to find water leaks is a mixture of hydrogen (5%) and nitrogen(95%) making it completely safe to use in drinking water supplies being both non toxic and non corrosive. The tracer gas contains hydrogen, which is the lightest and smallest molecule in the atmosphere, which will exit at the leak point and make its way to the surface where it is detected by the highly sensitive Variotec 460 gas detector.

Variotec 460 tracer gas finding water leaks
Tracer gas connected to a removed water meter
Tracer gas levels are displayed numerically on a large LCD.
Locating leak on central heating system

 VARIOTEC 460 tracer gas in use

  • The pipe, (or any item you wish to test for leaks), with the leak, is emptied of its contents. In heating or water systems drain out as much water as possible; small amounts of water remaining at low points of the system do not dramatically affect the success as the gas is pressurised around the water system.
  • Ensure the system is sealed. i.e. no gas can escape except via the leakage point

  • From a cylinder of Tracer gas, (5% hydrogen / 95% nitrogen, provided by standard compressed gas suppliers), make  a suitable connection to the item to be filled with gas.

  • The pressure you use will depend on the normal operating pressure of the system being tested for leaks and how high you wish to pressurise.

  • When the cylinder pressure gauge steadies you know that any subsequent pressure loss of tracer gas can only be via a leak

  • With the Variotec 460's  internal sampling pump turned on, (this positive sampling of the air speeds up response time), walk over the area to be searched with the Variotec 460 on its most sensitive setting (ppm). Observe the display looking for the location with the highest tracer gas readings.

  • Move away from the area that showed the highest gas readings and see that the display drops

  • Return to the area that showed the highest reading and check the gas display once again increases

  • Check other areas for high readings

Note: The above information is for generic guidance only and  is not to be considered as instructions for how to operate or implement the use the Variotec 460


Hydrogen gas molecules

Why use hydrogen as the tracer gas?

Hydrogen, at a level of 5% in a balance of nitrogen, is:

  • non flammable
  • non toxic
  • non corrosive
  • totally safe
  • commonly used as a blanket gas in welding so is cheaply and readily available from all the standard gas suppliers
  • has the smallest and lightest molecules so permeates all surfaces including concrete, tarmac, block paving and grass, rising quickly to the surface
  • rapidly disperses in air allowing you to hone in quickly to the source
  • unlike helium leak detection, which has also been used for some types of leak detection tracing, hydrogen is renewable and cheap; helium is finite and expensive

Variotec 460 tracer gas sampling probes

  • Carpet probes for long stretches of smooth surfaces
  • Bell probes which concentrate the gas for localising in undergrowth or on smooth surfaces such as kitchen floors
  • Hand probes both telescopic and flexivle to reach into awkward areas
  • Cone probes for localisation in bar holes you make in the ground

Charging and carrying the Variotec 460 tracer gas

  • Parts and accessories are stored neatly in the hard protective carrying case
  • The Variotec 460 tracer gas may be charged directly from a 12 V cigar lighter socket in a vehicle or from the mains
  • The detector can be charged whilst remaining in the case 
Variotec 460 tracer gas used to locate water leaks

Variotec 460 tracer gas Specifications

Sample intake: Built-in membrane pump
Operating time: ~8 hours (with pump)
Power supply: Rechargeable or Alkaline batteries
Weight: 1 Kg
Dimensions (WxHxD): 148 × 57 × 205 mm
Operating temperature:   -20 °C ... +40 °C
Storage temperature: -25 °C ... +60 °C
Protected to: IP 54
Interface: Operated by jog dial, function keys and menu navigation